Saturday, August 3, 2013

A bursting bubble? - Hydrogen

Hydrogen - the mirage,

I'm beginning to see the conservative news machine and astroturf bloggers winding up for a go at electric cars. This makes sense as Big Oil needs to squeeze maximum dollars out of vast holdings that require fracking and pollution intensive methods for recovery.  Regardless of US security interests, world climate, etc. One of the darlings of this group is the hydrogen car. It is held out as 'the answer'. Why not - when it combines hydrogen and oxygen in a fuel cell - what do you get - good old safe non polluting water and electricity to power a vehicle.

That model also excites gas companies - liquid hydrogen can't be produced on your roof with solar cells or wind in the backyard. Electric utilities don't find it competing with their baseline load production like home solar and wind. Stations will just offer regular, unleaded, and liquid hydrogen. Centralized with the big companies selling the consumer 'what they need'. Taxed by the cold pint of course so legislators and oilmen turned politcos are just drooling at this well understood road revenue source.

My good workout friend Larry pointed out a desert solar plant for making liquid hydrogen. I'll grant you this is a positive - hydrogen cracking because the electrical cost to produce chilled compressed hydrogen from water doesn't make sense from an electric cost, but a giant desert solar source going to waste due to transmission costs. That works. You can truck it out on a hydrogen big rig - ok thats fair if you solve all issues with hydrogen storage. The energy density is nowhere near gas or lithium air. Still might work, uses seawater and desert, and very low enviro impact with no CO2 - which is great.

The overall efficiency of producing, compressing, and using the hydrogen in a fuel cell is 46.9%.  This is not much greater than the 40% efficiency of the Prius hybrid and well below the efficiency of a diesel hybrid.  Researchers at Massachusetts Institute Of Technology (MIT) have reported that diesel with hybrid is more green than hydrogen fuel cell vehicles. So this hydrogen production is best done at some kind of desert area where solar is wasted. Of course there are the various maintenance costs for the plant but still this is promising.

The physics for hydrogen make for a tough case for anything not zeppelin or big rig size. Huge tank and safety armor required. That's not optimum real world implementation - that's basic physics of hydrogen. To quote Elon Musk whose SpaceX runs resupply vehicles to dock with the International Space Station:

“You could take best case of a fuel cell, theoretically the best case, and it does not compete with lithium-ion cells today. And lithium-ion cells are far from their optimum.”

A pessimistic link:

Check out this video from Fully Charged about fuel cells - interesting and partly positive:

Some other sources on the problems with hydrogen:

On balance I'd say economical hydrogen without an increase in CO2 is going to take renewable non CO2 energy as in Larry's link to the seacoast desert solar plant, combined with hydrogen powered transport rigs. For use in large vehicles due to the tank size and corrosive maintenance involved with hydrogen. I don't see it in normal vehicles any time soon. Perhaps a Hummer? - which could please conservatives and monster truck enthusiasts alike.

Robert Llwellen in the Honda FCX *Video*

Don't get me wrong - I applaud Toyota saying they will have 50 to 100K dollar consumer hydrogen vehicles by 2015. I am a skeptic though and I'm curious if their rollout beats Tesla's consumer model 40K dollar family car.  Combined with minimal cargo space, fuel costs greater then gas, and immense maintenance issues will Toyota's new offering stand up to Tesla's battery powered one?

Even more reading:

Wednesday, July 24, 2013

Wild July

Well the dam is breaking. At various electric clubs I'm seeing in the flesh:

C-Energy Plug in Hybrids,
A Ford Focus EV,
Honda Fit EV,
The Prius plugin - although vastly outnumbered by regular hybrid Priusi.

Several of each of the usual suspects:
Teslas - Coupe and Model S,
Volts, and

I've driven a Smart EV coming in October for sale and these models are in the pipeline:

BMW I3 next year - about 42K and an option for range extension,
Chevy Spark,
and a Kia model that I guess will have sparking hamsters commercials.

Given the numbers compared with hybrid adoption we are WAY ahead even if the Presidents one million in 2015 still looks optimistic. Still Nissan/Renault alone is already at 100K EV's sold in 2013. Not too shabby. As usual the naysayers and oil shills are out in force. Still it appears the lower prices, electric efficiency, and fair carbon comparisons are finally carrying the day for a segment of the market.

Wednesday, June 26, 2013

Eighteen Months and Twenty Two Thousand Leaf Miles

Well a year and a half and 22,000 gas free miles. The Leaf has been relatively trouble free but for a squirrel infestation that Nissan fixed for free. No lost bars of capacity. Friends in the area have gone 35k without loss but one at 31K has lost one bar in twelve so it will be coming.

My goal with 3.5 years left to pay is enough battery for round trip work and then saving when its paid off for battery replacement. I need 50 in winter and I'd say with heated seats and defrost as needed my lowest is about 65 - never having turtled. This is having done two winters. So if I lose two bars of twelve by payoff I'm still estimating 53 and a small safety margin. Not to mention I may retire by then.

With my lead foot even in my old Honda Hybrid that 22k miles would have cost 600 gallons of gas - she was only getting about true 35 mph at 10 years old. (Started at 45 mph when she was young in 2003) Still that car was a cost winner for me even when the catalytic converter went for the second time and she was retired. Overall definitely a winner with a 5k break, reduced sales tax and great mileage. The Leaf is in a whole new category though - even waiting in line at full MRSP which no one has to do today... Let's break it down:

I get free electric. Eco-landlord is a terrific guy. We'll break it down both ways for those not lucky enough to use the sun for power... Lets look at the five year picture.

My costs over five years and 75k miles. Insurance and registration is a wash as driving affects it more then car type.

$40,000.00 with loan interest tags--> $39000 - Loaded 2012 SL - at 1.79% $665 or about $7975 a year
$100.00                       - Five tire rotations - could of got them free but I like visiting Bowie Nissan.
$20.00                        - My real electric cost - my two cards for charging - one has been billed $2 so far.
$35.00                        - Joining the electric car club
$350.00                      - Upgrading my charger to 240/120 vs 120v.
$540.00                      - A year and a half electric ** If I paid for it - we'll add it for fun ***
$1200.00                    - Three and a half more with a little inflation
$200.00                      - Add a brake pad job - generally half as often just like the Honda hybrid
$460.00                      - One set of tires

 -$7,500.00 my Fed rebate!  ( Not to mention MD sales tax breaks which I won't get into here )
$35,500 across 5 years and my new total yearly cost while paying it off was $7500.  After that it just insurance, brakes, tires and sunshine -if I'm ok if 50 mile real world winter range in retirement.  If not a replacement for around 5-10K depend on improvements and scale in batteries.  Electric motors can conservatively run trouble free for 20-50 years!

Try that with an ice car:

$25,000 - Nicely appointed Internal Combustion Engine econobox - nav system realw 30mpg 0 finance
$  1,500 - MD tax
$    460  - tires
$    400  - two brake jobs
$    100  - five tire rotations
$    450  - 15 oil changes @ $30 each
$    100  -  radiator flush & fill.
$      75  -  five MD emissions test - skip charge for the $15000 cat converter replace I needed at 80k
$10,000 -  2500 gallons of gas at real world 30 mph ( 36 minus your lead foot over 55mph )

I have a trouble free commuter with winter range around low 50's worst case.  And I'm $2500 to the good towards a new battary if we compare.  The ICE owner is well getting ready to buy another five years of oil and gas.

Finally in the 2013 year Nissan has the same cool battery,better body, and electric motor but missing gadgets and nav system for:

$28,800 - the S model.  Or lease for $199.

Next the real reason I have a Leaf - nothing to do with cost, better ride, or easy maintenance.

Here's an even more economical ride - but the world is not quite ready for the Th!nk I'm afraid.

Still the Think at 9 months has a respectable 2k miles on it and has been a delight as well.......

Monday, June 3, 2013

The Merry Month of May

May 2013 has been a very good Electric Car Month, in general and personally.

First Tesla paid off their loans and destroyed the anti electric investors who have been shorting their stock with a squeeze that got them where they worship - their wallets. Couldn't happen to a better group. Tesla also announced expansion of their free to S owners super charger network. The first quarter of 2013 they sold 5,000 cars which isn't bad for a 65-85K vehicle.

I myself at 17 months put 20k+ on my Leaf. My Leaf continues to give me a reliable perfect ride.  All bars still good on the battery. Here's a screenshot:

She still zips off the line. Electric cost total for 17months = $527.  About 2.75 cents a mile 'fuel' cost.  The Davidson's Leaf is charged to full every time, is well over 30k and no battery loss showing on the gauge yet. Very encouraging as I hope to replace my batteries sometime after my 5 year loan for the car is up - and of course later is better. I plan to start saving right after the loan payoff though.

Speaking of that the 28800 MSRP on the less gizmoed Leaf S seems to helping sales to records in the last months of into May.  May was 2138 cars - the 2nd best. Take 7,500 fed tax rebate off that 28800,  add destination & tags and you are around $22,500. Finally for the faint of heart a lease deal at $199 also should keep the Leafs humming!

Last but not least the Electric Sociability Run sponsored by MDVolt at: with participation by EVA/DC and many sponsors.  Here is the website for the Run:

What a great time - Kevin drove the Th!nk Electric - the second electric car in the family.  It gets charged slowly by a 120 volt Clipper creek trickle charger. Here is a photo at the picnic after:

It performed very well, we caught an extra hours charge in Bethesda at Mike and Christa's who are helpful Leaf owners and got back with plenty to spare. The big news was Kevin and I each had a prize ticket and Kevin is holding a new 240Volt 50 amp GE watt station in this next photo.

Thanks to the generous sponsors and the fun picnic/run organizers. What a great day for Electric Vehicles - here was the attendance count from Lanny:

2013 Sociability Run EV List:
12 Tesla Model S
11 Chevy Volt
8 Nissan Leaf
3 Tesla Roadster
3 Ford Focus EV
3 Zero S
2 Think City
1 Ford Fusion Energi
1 Ford C-Max Energi
1 BMW Z3 Electric
1 Porsche 914 Electric
48 Total
I would guess they are behind the 54 or so back in 1914, but that just gives us something to shoot for on the 100th run next year! Here folks and the electric bikers were awaiting pictures...

Many more pictures are up at the links above.

So if you are on the fence, consider joining us with a lease. Trade in some old thing for the 2k down and enjoy enough savings to pay for the lease - not to mention the fun you will have coming to the various electric events all over the area.

Sunday, April 21, 2013

The Leaf and Earth day

So I've been pretty positive about various electric cars. For this earth day though, my favorite is still the Leaf.  Especially the 2013 Leaf S.

My 2012 Leaf has 18,000 miles, no battery degradation and plenty of zip. Almost 18 months driving and last 12 with a 50 mile commute.

Now imagine the same car body, motor, batteries, and a roomier hatchback.

Less fun electronics, fast charge port only optional as well as the 2013 level 2 speed increase for charging.

Still a 29k car that is 22k after federal rebate?  Mine was 32k after rebate. Great lease deals. The base 2013 Leaf is the most amazing commuter tool ever. Saves me $150 in gas a month. The base has a radio instead of Nav system but again not a problem in a commuter. Heck if you have 30 mile or less commute I survived on the 120v trickle charger for my first six months.

I hear 'Tesla is awesome'.  True but only for the 65k demographic. I like the Focus, The Think, The Volt. I still think the Leaf is your Earth Day choice. I hear complaints about the style, but to me all gas cars are so so - I'd rather have a clean, super peppy off the stop light, and no gas electric! Easily as pretty as a Prius - I think car beauty is skin deep. Electric beauty is in the bones!

So this Earth Day - take a spin in a Leaf at a dealer - or ask me. It's the no gas option that will help us save the Earth.  Having fun the whole way.

P.S. My Red Leaf next to a Tesla - admittedly the Tesla IS nice - grin.

Wednesday, March 13, 2013

Happy Birthday Electric Detectives

One year of Electric Detectives - 30 entries.  15 months with electric cars.

Don't break out the bubbly for battery cars yet - still looks uphill.

A reasonable start - hopefully I'll find more subjects for posts this year.

DG "Dave" Leaf

Sunday, March 10, 2013

More FUD from EV critics my friends

Critics are trying to use Fear, Uncertainty, and Doubt - F.U.D.

For example - in the NY Times car section a reporter claims a Tesla S can't make a run to Boston.

In the blogosphere there are lot's of ways to make money. I've put up youtube whale videos in the hope of making a few bucks - my cousin made quite a bit after posting a grouper feeding video. No luck there but hey it's worth a try. I understand people trying to make a living off the net.

I have not monetized or put ads on this blog because I think it's very important to understand motives in the EV world. I see many posters that I believe benefit from entrenched industry. After all the net is a huge influence on opinion and 20k spread among 4 commenters for say 2 hours of work a week for a year is peanuts compared to paid ads. Anonymous too, so big oil or the repair industry can make EV's look impractical without leaving a paper trail. So everywhere you see the snide naysayer - often quite rabid in their remarks - generally never having owned an EV.

So when I'm telling you about how the EV has worked well for myself and my son - it's all from a desire to keep our climate sane, our air clean, and our dollars out of the oil cartels. That I save a bundle is cool too.

Now there are also folks on their own that believe EV's are bad - but many have been sold a bill of goods by Fox, conservative 'think tank' fronts, and the conservative PR business. Which is sad because fiscal restraint and individual responsibility are good things but somehow the GOP has let it itself be led by extremists, big oil, and the 1% into the wrong alley. You don't have be on the left to want clean water and a decent climate for your kids.

So first when the newspapers (which carry adverts for car repair and gas) have a car 'reporter' drive around in circles to run an EV out of juice - it is suspect. How is it that Dave - D G Leaf can drive his car 15k in year and not run out - all while having a 120v/240v charger with extension cord in the back of his car if I did. I have not - not once. I'm no car genius either. I make sure my map is up to date and keep apps to help locate chargers at the ready.

When you hear the FUD remember that people are afraid - afraid for their repair business. Afraid for the public waking up about the climate and climbing out of the lobster pot they are slow cooking in for the profits of oil and gas speculation.

I can tell you - if you have a gas car in the family that you can keep, an EV can be practical and fun as your second car. It's affordable and unless you are in an apartment with no charge options easy to charge. That's all we need to sell - to that market for the second family car. Then economies of scale kick in. What Tesla sells now for luxury price becomes commonplace.  Range and cost improve yearly.

It's coming - don't believe the FUD. If I can do it - so can you, and for much less money then I did.

Finally for those that are just too worried - try a spin in a Volt sometime. All the bennies of electric miles with the reassurance of a backup gas capability.

Sunday, March 3, 2013

4 of 4 - A summary for new 2013 models

Conclusion - The 2013 Leaf models - I'm very positive.

Having seen an 'S' model Leaf for $28,800 I'm jazzed at the new low price. That's my favorite.
When Kevin and I worked the DC Auto show we had a chance to see the S in person and I am just floored.

Why? The 'S' $28,800 MSRP

Nissan definitely tries to 'up sell' you.  There are things you will miss - cruise control and nav system. Chademo fast charging and the new faster charge system. Note though - my chademo 'fast' charger port is still a virgin after a year - no fast chargers yet in Maryland.  Here's the 'S' CD AM/FM stereo:

Keep your eyes on the prize though and what a winner it is.  24kwh battery with the same range as my 2012 or the older 2011.  That is about 75 miles three season driven normally with 65 on the highway.  Winter is definitely harder but even the S has heated seats and steering wheel - just like mine.  Your mileage on cold 20 degree days in Maryland will be more like 60.

Now that sounds small but I've found it to be quite adequate. Also when driven carefully I usually find I can eek out a bit more when I need to. I've never run out of juice in 15,500 miles and 15 months of use. For the first 6 months I ran with nothing but the 120v 19hr charger - which is still included. I'd get home at 5pm and plug in and most mornings leave fully charged. At that time I had a 26 mile work commute.

So if your family is looking for that second commuter car. A roomy fast electric could be perfect - consider in Maryland:

28800+850 dest+350 tags+title-dealer = $30k to take home + NO MD TAX.
Now if you pay at least $7500 a year in federal tax   $30,000 - $7,500 fed electric rebate = $22,500.

Now $22,500 is not too shabby for a family commuter that will cost you $30-$40 a month in electric and nothing in gas.

My 2012 plan is for a car that is paid off in 5 years and then get battery upgrades at 5 year intervals if needed for about 6k. At that point we're talking $100 a month for battery maintenance with the hope then battery tech continues to improve and no car payments as this vehicle will have a very long life.  Even with tires and brakes my yearly TCO will be unbelievable - imagine yours with a $22.5K car.

Plus the new liftback room is improved - mine had a hump - now 2013 it's open with fold down seats:

The interior is very roomy and comfy as evidenced by Kevin my 6 six foot son:

The 'S' is big step towards a family electric with no compromise with a great TCO.  Dropping the MSRP to $28800 is a fantastic move.

Now to be real, with all the improvements in electrics there is a second way. I've heard of lease deals for the 2013 SL ( top shiney model ) for 24 month lease at 3k down and $260 a month.  Given depreciation on E/Vs is heavy, if you are not planning on keeping it for a long time leasing is the way to go. Even with the down pay the gas saving will make this a good deal. Just remember the cheapest leases are 12000 mile per year and that isn't much. Check the mileage allowance carefully.

As I said though - I'm jazzed - these 2013 models answer the question of cost. This battle will continue to be down and dirty - big oil and their many mouthpieces are awake and dragging any threat though the mud. Nissan isn't asleep though - they have pushed 'all in'.  The Leaf has sold 50,000 world wide at the higher price point. Now Smyna TN is churning out batteries and Leaf cars made in America at ever lower prices.

Now if by 2015 they come up with range so I can look at electrics as a primary or 'only' vehicle at a price point that the average American can purchase. Like a Tesla for the common guy or gal looking for a car they can feel good about.

Wednesday, January 23, 2013

Part 3 of 4 - Financial

A New Hope!

Well Nissan has really surprised me - talk about aggressive pricing and keeping the onboard 110volt charger. These prices really change the 2013 for me.

Let's look at 2013 Leaf MSRP prices:

Leaf S    Model - 28,800
Leaf SV Model - 31,820
Leaf SL Model - 34,840

My 2012 SL Nissan was about 39k delivered, at full MSRP of 37250 - this was with 300 reduced MD sales/excise tax. A 2400 dollar deduction for top of the line. A better heater, faster charging, improved console - wow.

As I noted the S had some severe de-content but what a price drop! Basically a new Leaf with same great drive train coming in at about 30,300 delivered and 22,800 when you get the fed refund. Almost a quarter off for a very comfy electric ride for 5.  A delivered price of 22,800 really putting in contention with the Smart and putting Mini, Ford, even Volt on notice.  That's not far from the price that made me jump for the Think.
And now that we early adopters are out of the way, time for the negotiators to squeeze that bottom line even further down. 
I think this really turns around my negative look at the changes in part 2 - way more hope here.
Let's cross our fingers for Nissan to start giving early adopters a glimpse of what battery replacement is going to run with TN built batteries...
In the showrooms in March!

Thursday, January 10, 2013

2nd of 4 - Initial analysis

We won't be having 2013 Leaf pricing changes published for awhile.

Nissan needs to sell Leafs beyond the enthusiast market  Will 2013 model changes help?

So let's talk changes.  Weight reduction in the amounts listed can only provide a small range improvement unless I miss my guess. Really to ring bells the Nissan needs about 120 miles - that would provide a 100 mile range through most of its life as range declines. For someone like me the five year loan period for a car is where I need range to hold up - after that I can consider a new battery. I'd be surprised if the weight reduction ups the EPA 73 rating to 80.  The heater improvement is important for winter range but leaving it out of the 'S' means the most sensitive group to range - economy buyers, are left in the cold with lower range when using heat.

No active battery thermal protection change or battery chem changes leave the Leaf vulnerable to loss of range over time. Recently Nissan 'somewhat' guarantees 75 percent capacity in 5 years or 60,000 miles - I do appreciate this but it is less then the typical buyer needs.  So EPA 73 becomes EPA 65. Tough to sell over the Volt for a couple grand more. I love my Leaf but I expect year 5 to be downright tough. Like many middle class electric enthusiasts I have put all my spare funds into buying 10k above my usual high milage low emissions econobox pricing.

The charge improvement is big to a certain segment - 4 vs 7 hours is what is represented by 6.6 vs 3.6 kW charging. If you have an late night economy electric rate time for this is big. For many flat rate electric users such as I - seven hours of sleeping charges just as well either way. So again appeal but limited audience.

I don't like to sound again like a broken record but the 'B' mode for added regen is going to appeal to the enthusiast and hyper miler. However again we rat race commuters tend to forget our hyper mile skills - again the market beyond the enthusiast is unlikely to buy for this.

Finally the upscale options - leather, sound.  If you are looking for luxury appointments - why not a base Tesla 'S'? Or the gas option to eliminate range worries the Volt provides.

Do not misunderstand - each years improvements have helped. Lost cost leases under $200 especially. However we will have to hope for more improvement or very low prices to make this the breakthrough change. I'm sorry to say that because I love the Leaf and Nissan's leadership in reintroducing EV's for the common market. Tesla's for the rich are well and good but they are the only all electric that is close to a full 'real car' replacement. For the ordinary buyer - I still believe it may still not be enough to sell the Leaf.


Wednesday, January 9, 2013

2013 Leaf's - Part 1 of 4 - SPECS

So EV fans and friends (and the merely interested),

I love my Th!nk. I lust after the Tesla S.

Let's face it though - for most of you out there the main competitors are - the Leaf and the Volt. Maybe a third choice as the Ford Focus gets made in bigger numbers - still a question months after driving one. The Honda FIT - even more vaporwarish out there on lease terms for under 100 cars in 2012 - too bad.

Right now you want to go down to a dealer, test drive and buy or lease something like a compact to mid-size. Leaf or Volt is it.

So when Nissan announces a 2013 upgrade we'll pay attention and this is coming in four parts here.

1. Announced specs today.

2. My analysis of the new specs as a 2012 owner as well as a two EV owner.

3. MSRP and range - my thoughts - should be in less then two weeks.

4. Actual hands on analysis when the 2013's are available.

Some of this for a while is going to be a thought experiment as we pick through the three new models below in this NISSAN list of models standard and optional features.

Basically there will be three models - a extra stripped down econo version 'S', an 'SV' that looses a few more options, and the SL we know and love with a leather and sound option

I do have one early analysis note now - where dealers are selling 2012 LEAF's with firesale pricing, can you live with 7 hour charging, a less efficient heater, and no B (?) mode? If you can, the LED head lamps, full navigation system with CARWINGS, backup cam, solar 12v battery charger, built in fast charger,home link mirror, and other goodies are now only standard on the new SL so maybe the OLD SL is worth a look if you can drive a hard bargain? The new SV looks severely decontented too so the old 2012 SV basically loosing the CHADEMO - fast charge port, solar 12v tender, and backup cam? Well it's going to loose more - LED headlamps in particular? Again still could be worth a 2012 look.....

Now that's a mouth full - courtesy Nissan by way of the My Nissan Leaf website. More to come on these specs and the 2013 news in my next post.


Monday, January 7, 2013

A year - Two EVs and 15 thousand miles.

A year ago - 2011 - Dec 18, I took possession of my 2012 Leaf.

I had awaited over a year and a half for this moment. I received a full $7500 federal deduction a few months later.

I paid full retail. Yep hindsight is 20/20 and had I waited a cheap lease would have been possible. Still I'm glad for my decision.

I joined the EVA/DC club of electric vehicle supporters.

I showed my car at the January 2012 DC Auto show and talked to hundreds of car owners about the fun of an electric. Working the EVA/DC booth was fun - if a long day or two. Working and going to the show with me was my younger son Kevin - he developed a similar passion for the cars that may one day help us out of the climate crisis our planet faces.

I put over 13,000 miles in one year of the Leaf. Increased my daily commute from 27 to 52 miles a day and have had no issues even with other driving on top of that. I did have to upgrade my portable charger to 240volt charging for about $500 with heavy duty cables.

At it's one year battery evaluation, my Leaf was 100% no bars lost at the end of November 2012

In September 2012, I took possession of a second electric - a cute 2 seater Think City electric that my younger son Kevin will eventually own. Terrific car and basically the same size battery and range for $15,500 after my SECOND $7500 federal deduction. This car is less luxury then the Leaf, but do the math after the deduction. Was an MSRP of about $33000 down to $23000 with all tax tags costs etc.

Leaf 39,500 delivered - 7,500 = 32,000.  Range rated 73 EPA, mine up to 80 with mild to careful driving - 5 seats.

Think 23,000 delivered - 7,500 = 15,500. Range 75 - 82 again with mild to careful driving - 2 seats.

The Think City - about 2 miles more range then the Leaf.  Why the great price? Basically Think Europe is again in bankruptcy and Think City USA is funded to take care of the three year warranty with a skeleton staff that has been VERY responsive. When all new 2011 Think City's needed a heater replacement the small staff went to all the Think Citys in the US and got the job done.

In November 2012, I retired my ICE 2003 Honda Civic Hybrid.   I still own one third of a Toyota Yaris, I share with two others for long drives when needed.

So 2012 has been a great year for electric vehicles at my home.